Thursday, May 21, 2020

Sales Promotion - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 437 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/09/11 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Sales Promotion Sales promotion is any initiative undertaken by an organisation to promote an increase in sales, usage or trial of a product or service Sales promotions are varied. Often they are original and creative. Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGOF)   which is an example of a self-liquidating promotion. For example if a loaf of bread is priced at $1, and cost 10 cents to manufacture, if you sell two for $1, you are still in profit especially if there is a corresponding increase in sales. This is known as a PREMIUM sales promotion tactic. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)  incentives such as bonus points or money off coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks to supermarkets. New media   Websites and mobile phones that support a sales promotion. For example, in the United Kingdom, Nestle printed individual codes on KIT-KAT packaging, whereby a consumer would enter the code into a dynamic website to see if they had won a prize. Consumers could also text codes via their mobile phones to the same effect. Merchandising  additions such as dump bins, point-of-sale materials and product demonstrations. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Sales Promotion" essay for you Create order Free gifts  e. g. Subway gave away a card with six spaces for stickers with each sandwich purchase. Once the card was full the consumer was given a free sandwich. Discounted prices  e. g. Budget airline such as EasyJet and Ryanair, e-mail their customers with the latest low-price deals once new flights are released, or additional destinations are announced. Joint promotions  between brands owned by a company, or with another companys brands. For example fast food restaurants often run sales romotions where toys, relating to a specific movie release, are given away with promoted meals. Free samples  (aka. sampling) e. g. tasting of food and drink at sampling points in supermarkets. For example Red Bull (a caffeinated fizzy drink) was given away to potential consumers at supermarkets, in high streets and at petrol stations (by a promotions team). Vouchers and coupons, often seen in newspapers and magazines, on packs. Competitions and prize draws, in newspapers, magazines, on th e TV and radio, on The Internet, and on packs. Cause-related and fair-trade  products that raise money for charities, and the less well off farmers and producers, are becoming more popular. Finance deals   for example, 0% finance over 3 years on selected vehicles. Many of the examples above are focused upon consumers. Dont forget that promotions can be aimed at wholesales and distributors as well. These are known as  Trade Sales Promotions. Examples here might include joint promotions between a manufacturer and a distributor, sales promotion leaflets and other materials, and incentives for distributor sales people and their retail clients

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Self Awareness As An Important Attribute For Nurses

This assignment aims to identify self-awareness as an important attribute for nurses. I aim to achieve this by exploring why self-awareness is important and the impact it can have on nursing professionals. Finally there will be a conclusion with a thorough justification on why self-awareness is an important life skill for nurses. Rawlinson, (1990) defines self-awareness as a conscious process in which we consider our understanding of ourselves. Having self-awareness and the ability to reflect means you can assess your own knowledge, skills and behaviours (NCL, 2014). In order to improve the quality of care and develop skills and confidence, one must reflect on their self-awareness experiences, to reach their full potential of practise. To define reflection Duffy (2008) describes reflective practise as an active and deliberate process to critically examine practice. Through self-awareness individuals can get to know more about what they do and what limits their abilities (Ghaye and Lillyman, 2001). Thus improving the quality of care provided to service users, as nurses have the responsible for providing care to the best of their ability to patients and their families. The NMC (2006) defines competency as the combination of skills, knowledge, attitudes and abilities that underpin effective performance in the nursing profession. Self-awareness defines a student nurse as an individual who is attentive, alert and consequently improving the environment and quality of careShow MoreRelatedThe Attributes Of Leadership As A Nurse Role1460 Words   |  6 Pageschanging of health care system, leadership skill is one of the most important competencies of advanced practice nurse (APN). This skill should be taught, practiced, nurtured and enhanced during APN education more than ever before. 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The Oxford Dictionary defines caring as the work or practice of looking after, as well as, displaying kindness and concernRead MoreEmotional Intelligence : Why It Can Matter More Than Iq By Daniel Goleman1489 Words   |  6 Pagesconcept of â€Å"emotional intelligence†, or EI, in a journal article in 1990 (Goleman, 2005). It was then popularized in 1995, with the book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ by Daniel Goleman. Goleman posited that EI is as important, if not more important, than IQ in terms of success in academics, business, and interpersonal relationships (2005). Although the phrase was new to English vernacular, the concept of EI is not a modern idea to human philosophizing. The Greek philosopher, PlatoRead MoreThe Concept Of The Care Of Terminal Patients1532 Words   |  7 Pagesaffects almost all nurses and almost all patients. Caring for rather than curing patients is becoming more necessary, but it is still a harrowing process for medical personnel to accept and facilitate. More education, exposure, and training are needed, which is why this topic was selected. The intent of this paper is to clarify the process in a concept analysis, based on Walker and Avant’s method, that explores the different uses of the concept of hospice care, studies its attributes, antecedents, andRead MoreEmotional Intelligence And The Nurse Essay1449 Words   |  6 PagesNurses are said to do the unthinkable and touch the untouchable (Canfield, Hansen, Mitchell-Autio, Thieman, 2001). Why nurses can seem to do this remains a mystery yet investigated in peer reviewed literature. Professional nurses hold values to a high standard while performing their tasks. This is done by individuals who are astute in the language that may not always be expressed with words, the language of emotion. 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Compare and contrast images of heroism in these two poems Free Essays

Heroism is a trait that we seem to have no problem identifying, yet when asked to define what a hero is a myriad of answers emerge. This phenomenon is not unique to today’s society; the definition of a hero is something that is constantly under revision and debate. An example of this can be seen in two older pieces of English literature: Beowulf, written circa 750-900, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, written circa 1375-1400. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast images of heroism in these two poems or any similar topic only for you Order Now These stories both have a main character that possesses heroic qualities, many of which are very similar. Gawain’s identity as a hero is not clearly demonstrated, but when compared with Beowulf, who is demonstrated to be a hero, hiss merits earn him that title as well. Exactly what defines a heroic act, or a hero for that matter? Often times we dismiss the question due to its complex nature. But when confronted with an individual with heroic qualities we readily identify them as a hero. So what set of traits makes up this amorphous definition that we call hero? I would agree that the very definition is one that is dependent upon the time and society in which its context is being used. A person who shot someone to save the life of another may be viewed as a hero under the scrutiny of one culture, but in a different time or location the very opposite may be true. Nevertheless, heroes exist and posses these ever changing heroic qualities. Beowulf is clearly demonstrated to be a hero, and we can observe the qualities he possesses to enable him to have that title. While Sir Gawain’s heroic accomplishments are a little more debatable, I would argue that he deserves the same title; he exudes qualities which can be considered heroic in the context of Arthurian Legend as well as today. Although we can attribute no authorship to Beowulf or Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, we can see that Beowulf was meant to be a hero and if nothing else, Gawain was portrayed as the story’s protagonist. One such way this was done was by having neither of the main characters as all powerful rulers; in fact each Beowulf and Gawain served some sort of higher authority. Beowulf, throughout approximately 2/3 of the story serves Hrothgar. Similarly, Gawain was not ruler of his domain but served King Arthur. It is important to note that while both served other men, they were not themselves servants. Beowulf traveled from his land to assist in the destruction of Grendel, and Gawain chose to be a knight of the Round Table and indeed viewed his service to Arthur and his kingdom as an honor. By the construct of having both main characters serve others, the author has created more capacity for heroism to become apparent. If the President of the United States were to prevent nuclear war, the people would obviously be relieved and grateful that he fulfilled his duty. If a soldier on the field accomplished the same task, he would be regarded as a true hero. Transcending one’s traditional role and going above and beyond is a characteristic which helps to set heroes apart from other people. Sir Gawain goes above and beyond his role when declaring his intention to battle the Green Knight. â€Å"I would come to your counsel before your court noble. /For I find it not fit, as in faith it is known, /When such a boon is begged before all these knights, /Though you be tempted thereto, to take it on yourself† (lines 347-350) King Arthur at this point had already accepted the challenge, yet Gawain decided to take his place because he was aware of the danger and risk involved in letting the King fight. He admits just a few lines later that â€Å"I am the weakest, well I know, and of wit feeblest; /And the loss of my life would be least of any;† (lines 354-355) This indication that is ability to fight is low makes his decision to fight that much more heroic, and this is all done in the name of Arthur. Beowulf, on the other hand, does not have an issue of inferior strength, but quite the opposite- he seems to posses a sort of superhuman strength. Even so, his level of self restraint and wisdom prevents him from overthrowing Hrothgar despite his superior abilities. This amount of loyalty and service is a trait that helps develop his character even further as a hero. Both Gawain and Beowulf having been in similar instances serving a higher authority have shown heroic qualities although they may have differed. While the two main characters in discussion are being portrayed as heroes, they are still human and have fallibilities. It is the dynamic experience, the rise and fall of these characters which makes them real and human, that shows what they are truly made of. This insight may prove to be disappointing or disheartening for many, I find the revelation to be comforting as it reasserts that a hero isn’t an idyllic state but a condition which can be humanly attained. Beowulf’s rise and fall is demonstrated rather clearly throughout the progression of the story. At his peak, he kills Grendel with his bare hands. In the second encounter with Grendel’s mother he is victorious, but requires the use of armor and the sword Hrunting. As time passes, he becomes king. He helps to slay the dragon that is terrorizing the land with the assistance of Wiglaf and his men, but at the cost of his life. This failure of his strength is foreshadowed earlier by Hrothgar, â€Å"Choose dear Beowulf, the better part, /eternal rewards. Don’t give way to pride. /For a brief while your strength is in bloom/ but it fades quickly† (lines 1759-1762). Beowulf’s wisdom, which he relies on throughout the story even diminishes as he faces the dragon, as shown when he elects to strike first by himself with full knowledge that his strength is not as great as it used to be. Another interesting point is that while in the service is Hrothgar is heroic qualities shown through but when he became leader, he was still a hero but many of the qualities such as his wisdom and strength in this instance have decreased. Likewise to Beowulf, Gawain experiences a rise and fall. His circumstance is slightly different than Beowulf’s however. Gawain’s worthiness to even be named a hero is often put into question, and his final deeds tend to overshadow the previous ones when that consideration is made. This is an unfair judgment as no one would rescind Beowulf’s status as a hero because of his pride blinding his judgment towards the end of his life, but would still consider him a hero because of his previous heroic actions. The same is true of Sir Gawain. Near the end of the story when he thinks he will die and flinches when the ax is coming down on his neck, he’s viewed as a coward. I’ll concede that it was a cowardly thing to do, but then I’m forced to ask the rhetorical question, â€Å"What would you do? † Moments later, Gawain recomposes himself, doesn’t flinch and gets nicked. Of course, one could argue that Gawain is a coward disguised as a hero because of his protest to the Green Knight claiming his debt is paid, and that he decided to use the green girdle. First of all, Gawain spends the rest of his days lamenting his decision to use the girdle, so he isn’t ignorant of what he as done. Secondly, there is absolutely nothing heroic about dying without a cause, which is what would have been the case had the Green Knight carried out his threat. I see no harm done in preparing oneself for an encounter such as the one he went through. We often laude heroes for their cunning in wisdom, so why should those same traits in Gawain be looked upon negatively? While there are many more facets to declaring someone a hero, these are a few that both Beowulf and Gawain share. Beowulf demonstrates that its namesake is a man who is supposed to be regarded as a hero. This same intent is not made in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, but when the two are compared with each other, Sir Gawain is shown to be a hero, not a simple coward that he may initially appear to be. How to cite Compare and contrast images of heroism in these two poems, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Miss free essay sample

How successful was Alexander II in overcoming opposition to his regime? In 1861 Russia was a backward state, other countries in Europe had undergone the industrial revolution but Russia was still an agricultural country with a large lower class of serfs. Alexander II made the decision to emancipate the serfs in 1861 mainly due to a fear of revolt but also as a cause of liberal pressure and in the interest of economic growth. Throughout this decision and decisions to make other reforms different political groups opposed Alexander II. In the first instance from left wing revolutionary groups who were against the autocratic state and desired a democratic state. The different revolutionary groups used different methods of proposing their beliefs, some used violence. Alexander II was in some ways successful when overcoming opposition to this group as his appointment of Shuvalov saw that revolutionaries were tried in military courts. However a revolutionary group eventually assassinated Alexander in 1881, making his attempts to overcome opposition unsuccessful. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Other forms of opposition were the liberals who wished for reforms to be made, but for the state to remain under the ruler ship of the Tsar. They wanted a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy. Alexander II created opposition to his regime from this group when he introduced counter reforms, turning liberals to revolutionary ideas and methods. Alexander II was mostly unsuccessful when aiming to overcome opposition to his regime. One of the first examples of this was when he made reforms concerning the university statute of 1863, which encouraged revolutionary activity. The universities were now allowed to self-rule, which meant more modern subjects, which encouraged liberal ideas. The relaxation of censorship in 1863 accentuated this, as students were able to openly discuss radical ideas the following was published in a journal by a group of student revolutionaries called Young Russia, â€Å"There is only one way out of this oppressive and terrible situation which is destroying contemporary man and that is revolution- bloody and merciless revolution†. They believed that â€Å"the sovereign has betrayed the hopes of the people†. The growth of students led to an increase of educated people who were critics of the Tsarist regime, this was the opposite of what Alexander II had wanted to achieve when he made university more accessible and relaxed censorship. Between the years 1861 to 1865 Alexander II made a substantial amount of liberal reforms, which led revolutionaries and liberals alike to believe that Russia was beginning to improve. From 1865 to 1880 Russia entered into a repressive stage and Alexander II introduced many counter reforms this involved the appointment of Count Dmitri Tolstoy in 1866 as the minister of education. Tolstoy blamed the university system for the spread of revolutionary activity. To combat this he replaced subjects, which encouraged independent thought with traditional subjects such as Latin, Greek and Church history. He also made it increasingly difficult for poorer students to reach university. This however proved to be counter productive as students began to move to Switzerland to pursue their studies, where they could freely listen to critics of the Tsarist regime, therefore encouraging the growth of revolutionary activity. Count Peter Shuvalov was also appointed in 1866 as head of the third section. Repressive methods were introduced to keep order this included the use of military courts to try cases of political violence. Shuvalov also tightened censorship as it had been before the reforms. The repressive methods that were introduced were a contributing factor to the significant amount of liberals who were turned to revolutionary ideas. They had believed Alexander II would make further reforms however they had lost trust and revolutionary activity increased between 1873 and 1877. Alexander II had failed in overcoming the opposition this was confirmed when the revolutionary group â€Å"Peoples Will† assassinated him in 1881. On the contrary some people believe Alexander II was successful in overcoming opposition to his regime. Alexander II had emancipated the Serfs meaning they were free to travel, marry and engage in business therefore in some aspects giving them a better quality of life and in some ways improving the economy through the business minded, wealthier peasants who became known as â€Å"Kulaks†. The emancipation satisfied modernisers and humanitarian groups who were interested in Russia’s economy and the welfare of Russian peasants. Another way Alexander II appeared successful in overcoming opposition to his regime was the joint effort of Tolstoy and Shuvalov. The restrictions Tolstoy placed on universities in Russia stopped the spread of revolutionary ideas within Russia to an extent. The new university system disenabled students to study subjects that may encourage opposition to the Tsarist regime. Shuvalov cracked down on the young revolutionaries and between 1877-8 there were two major trials of populists with 243 young revolutionaries put on trial. Despite Alexander II’s assassination in 1881 supporters to his success of overcoming opposition to his regime would argue that he was successful due to the fact that the Tsarist regime was continued and was supported by the church and he army. Despite the success Alexander II experienced through the trial of revolutionaries and also the emancipation of the Serfs he was unsuccessful in overcoming the opposition to his regime. This was mainly due to the counter reforms he made after his original reforms which caused a growth in the opposition and led people to believe that the sovereign had betrayed them. The control over censorship and universities led to an increase in radical ideas, which were sourced from alternatives countries. In conclusion I believe Alexander II was unsuccessful in overcoming opposition to his regime. Miss free essay sample 1. Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome. There are several causes of dementia some of them are; a stroke, brain disease, MS, certain medications, shrinkage of the brain, too many opiates over a long period of time and severe alcoholism 2. Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia. Dementia can cause the sufferer to experience loss of mental ability, loss of memory, a reduced understanding, and judgement. Dementia can also cause problems with language. 3. Explain the way that indivduals process information with reference to the abilities and limitations of indivduals with dementia. In the beginning stages of Alzheimers disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, people have varying degrees of self-awareness. Some people are very aware of their limitations, making them feel sad for the way they are now and making them worried about the future. In general, as the disease progresses, the level of self-awareness will most likely decline. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the earlier stages of the disease, the person you care for may deny or not understand that they have the disease. This can result in them not realizing their own limitations in their abilities, such as driving. As well, the person you care for may believe that they are completing tasks which are now being done for them. For example, they may think they have made the bed when someone else has. As their self-awareness declines, so will their ability to express their thoughts and feelings accurately. 4. Explain how other factors can cause change in an indivduals condition that may not attributable to dementia. Many people become forgetful as they become older. This is common and is often not due to dementia. There are also other disorders such as depression and an underactive thyroid that can cause memory problems. Even a simple water infection can cause an elderly person to become forgetful and their self awareness can change their perosnalitlies. There are certain situations that can affect a persons memory and make someone become more forgetful the you normally are, they include the following: poor concerntration, depression, physical illness, certain medications, and age. 5. Explain why the abilities and needs of an indivdual with dementia may fluctuate. There are many reasons why an individual with dementia may have needs and abilities that might fluctuate and change, these can include factors such as: how the individuals may have slept, waking up from certain dreams, for example it can take them back to a moment in time to their childhood. The desease of dementia causes a person to have frequent outbreaks of confusion and memory loss, this means that at any moment an individual can act and feel this way, some days can be better then others for someone with dementia, or even certain times of each day. This means that it is important for the people around the individual with dementia are able to adjust to their needs. When an outbreak happens a persons needs may become more demanding than when an outbreak isnt happened, it purely depends on the individual themself. Outcome 2 Understand the impact of recongnition and diagnosis of dementia. 1. Describe the impact of early diagnosis and follow up to diagnosis. Early diagnosis enables a person with dementia and their family to receive help in understanding and adjusting to the diagnosis and to prepare for the future in an appropriate way. This might include making legal and financial arrangements, changes to living arrangements, and finding out about aids and services that will enhance quality of life for people with dementia and their family and friends. Early diagnosis can allow the individual to have an active role in decision making and planning for the future while families can educate themselves about the disease and learn effective ways of interacting with the person with dementia. 2. Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an indivdual in line with agreed ways of working. Changes in memory and thinking ability can be very worrying. Symptoms of dementia can be caused by several different diseases and conditions, some of which are treatable and reversible, including infections, depression, medication side-effects or nutritional deficiencies. The sooner the cause of dementia symptoms is identified, the sooner treatment can begin. Asking a doctor to check any symptoms and to identify the cause of symptoms can bring relief to people and their families. 3. Explain the process of reporting possible signs of dementia within agreed ways of working. In a care home environment it is important as a worker that you record any possible signs of dementia occuring with any individual, this can be verbal to an senior member of staff, written in logs or electoncially. It is important that when you do report such signs that are accurate and timely so that it can be kept under close monitoring. Confidentiality is also key to obide with agreed ways of working. 4. Describe the possible impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on; The indivdual They might feel like they are in denile about being diagnosed with dementia. They will feel upset and depressed as well as the feeling of being scared about what might happen to them in the future. They might feel worried about not being able to remember important things about family, friends and life events that they hold so close to their heart. Their family and friends Some of the most common feelings families and friends expeirience are guilt, grief and loss, and anger. it is quite common to feel guilty—guilty for the way the person with dementia was treated in the past, guilty at feeling embarrassed by their odd behaviour, guilty for lost tempers or guilty for not wanting the responsibility of caring for a person with dementia. Grief is a response to loss. If someone close develops dementia, we are faced with the loss of the person we used to know and the loss of a relationship. People caring for partners may experience grief at the loss of the future that they had planned to share together. It is natural to feel frustrated and angry—angry at having to be a caregiver, angry with others who do not seem to be helping out, angry at the person with dementia for her difficult behaviours and angry at support services. Outcome 3 Understand how dementia care must be underpinned by person centred approach. 1. Compare a person centred and non-person centred approach to dementia care. A good care home will follow the principles of person centred care. This approached aims to see the person with dementia as an indiviual, rather then focusing in their illness or their abilities they may have lost. instead of treating the person as a collection of syptoms and behaviours to be controlled, person centred care considers the whole person, taking into account each individuals unique qualities, abilities, interests, preferances and needs. Person centred care also means treating residents with dementia with dignity and respect. 2. Describe a range of differnt techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the indivdual with dementia. People with dementia experience different levels of fluctuating abilities and needs. It is therefore important that carers understand the different range of techniques that can be used to meet these varying needs, these are as followed: knowing the person, stable and familier environment, and provide specific support. By having a background knowledge of the person including knowing the persons previous life nd history one would be able to understand why the person behaves in certain ways. One known trigger of agitation and confusion, for people with dementia is when their daily routine and environment are constantly changing. This can cause distress for them. It is important that people with dentia have consistant staff to follow their daily routine. People with dementi hve been known to wander, be agitated, have incontinence, be paranoid, and show repeated actions and speeches. dementia patients can wonder about within the environment offen mainly because they re bored and wanting to exscape. This can put a person at risk of accidents. It is important that they are engaged in physical activities to reduce the incident of wandering. 3. Describe how myths and stereotypes related to dementia may affect the indivdual and their carers. Myths and stereotypes may affect the individul and their carers in many ways, these include that they are teaching the wrong facts about dementia, this can cause extra needed worry on the individul themselves and on their famlies. myths such as people with dementia act in a certain way because they are mental or learning disabled this can make a person believe that they are something when they are not. It can affect the families of the individual because myths can cause confusion with what is really happening to their relitive, tehe myths might make them feel scred and affraid to help and to cope with the illness, such as people with dementia always physically attack. 4. Describe ways in which indivduals and carers can be supported to overcome their fears. There are many sources of advice and support for both families and individuals with dementia in their lives, there are specialists such as doctors to to help overcome any fears and worries about dealing with dementia. There is also support of the family and friends, this is a key support link. There are charities and websites such as the NHS that can provide endless amounts of imnformation and guidence to help everyone who is affected by dementia. Miss free essay sample How effectively does Frayn use Barbara Berrill in Spies? In Spies, Barbara Berrill is a character who contributes to the book throughout in many different ways, including her interactions with Stephen and overall presence in the book. Frayn achieves various different effects through her character, both affecting our view of Stephen, our view of other characters, the book as a whole and the atmosphere of the book. I believe that the criteria of effectiveness is judged on how well something affects or moves the  reader, and how well something contributes to the aim of a text. As soon as Barbara is introduced into the book on page 96, we can see this occurring, as the reader  is immediately able to sense one of Barbaras main effects and purposes in the book; the creation of humour when she is with Stephen. The reader finds their relationship comic at first due to the way that Stephen reacts when Barbara enters the lookout. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Stephen describes his sense of outrage that Barbara should be in the lookout, and he also says that he is offended by her intrusion. These phrases create humour in the book because they are so exaggerated and also are strong words to use, especially for a child. As a result, the reader feels somewhat superior to Stephen because we find it amusing that he could be so offended that someone has entered his secret place in spite of the mature words he uses, it feels like a childish reaction to be so infuriated by this. However, I believe that because of this reaction Stephen becomes more endearing as we find his childishness amusing. This is a main effect that the use of Barbara achieves her relationship with Stephen brings a lot of the humour to the book and also enables the reader to connect with Stephen more, which is an important factor in ensuring the book is successful. In this way, I believe Frayn has cleverly used Barbara to successfully manipulate the reader into finding Stephen more endearing, as his behaviour with the other characters in the book may not have been enough to achieve this alone. Another way in which the use of Barbara with Stephen creates humour in the book is how Stephen justifies his dislike of her. The way that Frayn has created the character herself to be is what creates†¦. How Effectively Does Frayn Use Barbara Berrill in Spies? Michael Frayn uses the character of Barbara Berrill to a variety of purposes in the book Spies. She is one of the key features to the themes of growing up and awakening views on adulthood and sexuality as well as providing Stephen with new evidence and theories as to what is going on, allowing us to see him interact with someone quite different from Keith, giving us perhaps a less biased and general  view  of occurrences in the close and also providing the book with some humour due to her blunt and matter-of-fact way of putting things and the way in which she acts as almost a bridge between the  reader  and Stephen, asking him the questions that perhaps we are asking ourselves. The obvious purpose of Barbara Berrill does seem to be her involvement in Stephens blossoming understanding of the adult world. Being a year older than him, she is a little more perceptive of the things which havent even really crossed Stephens mind before, such as the possibility of parents having boyfriends and girlfriends. This is a good example of a time where Barbara clearly passes on some new ideas to Stephen, as although he is  confused  at first, the idea sticks with him throughout thebook  as he slowly begins to realise that Barbara is right. Shes taking a message to Mrs. Traceys boyfriend Now I do turn to look at her, too uncomprehending to conceal it. Auntie Dees boyfriend? Whats she talking about? How can someones aunt have a boyfriend? This kind of encounter with Barbara near the beginning of the book emphasises to us just how naive and innocent of the world Stephen is at that point, not able to understand the possibility of relationships outside of what was offic ial and accepted and is perhaps one of the  first times  in the story that Stephen encounters something of the less glamorous side of being an dult, something so much stranger in his mind than the idea of spying that he tries to shut it out of his head as just the kind of thing that girls say, particularly the Berrill girls, who are running wild whilst their father is away. I think that Frayn uses Barbara for this purpose as she, being a year older and quite detached from what is going on, has more of †¦.. Miss free essay sample Many professionals in higher education argue that teaching students to behave in ethical ways and to develop core values that will influence lifelong decisions must become priorities. However, academic dishonesty is endemic in all levels of education. In the United States, studies show that 20% Of students started cheating in the first grade. Similarly, other studies reveal that currently in the U. S. , 56% of middle school students and 70% of high school students have cheated. Students are not the only ones to cheat in an academic setting.A study among North Carolina school teachers found that some 35 percent of exponents said they had witnessed their colleagues cheating in one form or another. The rise of high-stakes testing and the consequences of the results on the teacher is cited as a reason why a teacher might want to inflate the results of their students. The first scholarly studies in the 1 9605 of academic dishonesty in higher education found that nationally in the IS. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page S. , somewhere between 50%-70% of college students had cheated at least once. While nationally, these rates of cheating in the U. S. Main stable today, there are large disparities between different schools, depending on the size, selectivity, ND anti-cheating policies of the school. Generally, the smaller and more selective the college, the less cheating occurs there. For instance, the number of students who have engaged in academic dishonesty at small elite liberal arts colleges can be as low as while cheating at large public universities can be as high as 75%. Moreover, researchers have found that students who attend a school with an honor code are less likely to cheat than students at schools with other ways of enforcing academic integrity.As for graduate education, a recent study found that 56% of MBA students admitted heating along with 54% of graduate students in engineering, 48% in education, and 45% in law. Negative Implications (Consequences) Cheating in academia has a host of effects on students, on teachers, on individual schools, and on the educational system itself. For instance, students who engage in cheating, even once, are more likely to engage in cheating in the future, potentially putting them on a road to a life of dishonesty. Students who are dishonest in class are more likely to engage in fraud and theft on the job when they enter the workplace.Students are also actively affected by academic dishonesty after graduation. A university diploma is an important document in the labor market. Potential employers use a degree as a representation of a graduates knowledge and ability. However, due to academic dishonesty, not all graduates with the same grades actually did the same work or have the same skills. Thus, when faced with the fact that they do not know which graduates are skilled and which are not, employers must pay all graduates based on the quality of the average graduate.The more students who cheat, the lower the quality of the average radiate of a school, and thus the less employers are willing to pay a new hire from that school. Because of this reason, all students, even those that do not cheat themselves, are negatively affected by academic misconduct. Academic dishonesty also creates problems for teachers. Cheating causes an underproduction of knowledge, where the professors job is to produce knowledge. A case of cheating often will cause emotional distress to faculty members, many considering it to be a personal slight against them or a violation of their trust.Dealing with academic misconduct is often one of the ors parts of a career in education, one survey claiming that 77% of academics agreed with the statement dealing with a cheating student is one of the most oner ous aspects of the job. Academic misconduct can also have an effect on a colleges reputation, which is one of the most important assets of any school. An institution plagued by cheating scandals may become less attractive to potential donors and students and especially prospective employers. Alternatively, schools with low levels of academic dishonesty can use their reputation to attract students and employers.Ultimately, academic snootiest undermines the academic world. It interferes with the basic mission of education, the transfer of knowledge, by allowing students to get by without having to master the knowledge. Furthermore, academic dishonesty creates an atmosphere that is not conducive to the learning process, which affects honest students as well. When honest students see cheaters escape detection, it can discourage student morale, as they see the rewards for their work cheapened. Cheating also undermines academia when students steal ideas. Future Outlook What does the future hold for academic dishonesty? Miss free essay sample You will also evaluate who the target audience is, and analyse the effectiveness of the advertiser’s use of language, imagery and colours (advertising techniques) in achieving their intentions. Students must also discuss and evidence their understanding of the social, historical and cultural features which they feel are explicit and implicit within the poster. For this task, all students must demonstrate that they are taking an active and contributory role within the discussion and annotation process and that you have met the assessment criteria for this element of the task. Photographs of each group’s annotated ‘War Child’ poster will be taken. (1. 1 – 4. 2) ii. Compare and contrast the two advertisements by holiday companies to inform and persuade their target audience For this part of Task 3, you must compare and contrast the two holiday advertisements for Ibiza and Blackpool. Use the writing frame and assessment task criteria to help you structure your writing. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Paragraph 1 Introduction (1. 2) Introduce the two adverts, what they are for? Are they predominantly trying to persuade or inform? Mention the fact that you are going to compare and contrast them, and will be evaluating who the target audience is, evaluating what style and form the advertiser’s use, analysing the language used in the advertisements, and evaluating the imagery and colours that the advertisers have used. You will also mention that you will be analysing the social, historical and cultural features in the advertisements which are explicit and implicit. You must also comment on how you will be evaluating what all of the above (advertising techniques) has with regard to the overall effectiveness of the advertisements in targeting the audience. |In this media essay, I’m going to compare two adverts – which are adverting on holidays. The first advert is for the ‘IBIZA’ (I will call this advert A) The | |second is for ‘BLACKPOOL’ (I will call this advert B) Although they are both adverting on holiday, the advert holiday is totally on a different ways. This is| |because they are aimed at different group of people. | | | | Paragraph 2 – Target Audience (3. 1) Compare and contrast the two advertisements with regard to the target audience. Here you must evaluate who you think the advertisements are aimed at. You need to give at least two main points of evidence here. You also need to summarise how effective you think the advertisements are with regard to the targeting of the audience. The adver t A is persuading the young people and also giving information to what they are presenting for them during the time spent on their holiday. The | |advert B is also persuading people by giving them a free ticket to come to the Blackpool tower a place for holiday also informing them for is best to receive| |like the Tower complex houses have many attractions in all kind of entertainments that you can think of. | |In this two Adverts A and B I am going to have a closer look on both of them by comparing and contrasting them and evaluates who the target audience is. Both| |adverts are aimed at adults. However, advert A is aiming to the young people whereas advert B is aimed to mature adult’s men and women. The denotation of | |advert A IBIZA the style of the advert is girly colours like bright pink, blue and yellow and the written words are of red, white, yellow and violet colours. | | | | | |Poster A is aiming to the young people whereas poster B is aiming to adult’s men and women. In the advert A IBIZA the uses is girly colours like bright pink,| |blue and yellow and the written words are of red, white, yellow and violet colours. The imagery is about grouping pictures of young boys and girls at the | |beaches, cinema, airport, and car park; and some are travelling on large vehicle and they are of different code of dressing which is mainly for the young | |people and the language uses on it, it is an attraction to draw the attention of the young once that’s planning for their holiday. The both adverts are very | |effective because of different colours uses to design the posters they are of different effects, the form of the languages uses is to call an attraction of | |people and persuade them to come spent the holiday and the words uses are of upper and lower case which explain the thing to expect like going around visit | |the city, to the beaches, clubbing, dancing in the hall while spending their holiday. | | |These adverts are aiming at two different groups of people for the young boys and girls the styles uses and the languages uses know exactly the mind of young| |people of kind of thing they want like the social life style a young person would like to receive to be a history something they should look back on. | Paragraph 3 – Style and Form (3. 2) Here you need to compare and contrast the style and form of the two advertisements. Evaluate the overall style and form of the advertisements (the layout). Things to consider might be the position of the writing and the pictures. Which dominate and why? How does that link to the target audience? What font styles are used? What words are made to stand out? Again, summarise how does this link to how the advertisers are trying to inform or persuade the target audience? You must provide evidence. | | |The advert A which is the IBIZA has more effect on the poster and more colours also more photos of groups of people. The poster is displaying different | |people on different types of dressing. On the poster the written languages were uses upper and lower case some are bold and italics. The word used to stand | |out the advert is IBIZA written in a capital form with a large form of Alphabets. | |The position of the advert characters was at the right which displayed things to do at the beach, nights on the town, what’s are the costs prices, also the | |photos of groups of people was at the right side, they advertise the club beats with upper and lower case. |The advert B BLACK POOL the denotation of advert uses are less in colours and one photo of people dancing in the tower hall, photo of two people sited at the| |beach, the front photo of the tower hall and map show the travel direction which displayed the address and the direction to Blackpool town hall. The | |languages uses were upper and lower case some of the written words are highlighted bold and the position were at the left and the word Blackpool was written | |bold with a red colour and a written note from Deca Maggie to Jacquie were at the middle of the poster. The word used to stand the adverts is Blackpool | |written with a red colour and with large Alphabets. The two adverts A and B are trying to persuade the target audience to come and experience a good holiday. | | | Paragraph 4 – Language and slogans (4. 2) Here you must compare and contrast the language and slogans used in the two advertisements. What do you notice about the language choices? Is it formal or informal? Does it contain any dialect? Are there any slogans? Can you analyse how the language in the advertisements is used in different social contexts? Again, summarise how effective you think the language used in the advertisements is, in targeting the audience. You must provide evidence. |The language uses is to draw the attention of people who’s want or planning for holiday uses persuading word , writing on different form of colours, make | |use of italic, bold, upper case and case to call attraction. The imagery showing the adult’s men and women dancing at the tower all these are form of drawing| |an attention of the people to come and spent their holiday at the Blackpool tower. | |The language used was a clear and understand English languages there were nothing contain dialect and is wasn’t formal or informal. The language was use | |effectively because on the poster you can see that the written word was design attractively on lower and upper case has different attracting colour and the | |languages was targeting the people planning on holiday. Paragraph 5 – Imagery and colours (3. 2) Compare and contrast the imagery and colours used in the advertisements. Here you must evaluate the imagery (pictures and graphics) contained in the two advertisements. Compare the imagery of the two advertisements and comment on the differences. You could discuss how you think the use of imagery and colours is perhaps more effective than the other in targeting the audience. Wh at does the imagery and colours suggest about the two holiday destinations? Evaluate how the colours in the advertisements create a mood? Are they vibrant and exciting, or plain and reassuring? As before, summarise how effective you think the imagery and colours used in the advertisements is in targeting the audience. Give evidence. |The imagery is displaying group pictures of young boys and girls at the beaches, cinema, airport, and car park; travelling on large vehicle also the code of | |dressing which is mostly for the young people and the language uses on it. This advert is to call attraction to draw the attention of the young once that’s | |planning for holiday by persuading them to come and spent holiday. On the other hand, the denotation of advert B is a Tower hall Blackpool the style of the | |adverts uses in the background is blue with yellow and red and dim warm colour and the written words are of red, blue, yellow and black. | |The image and the pictures contained in the two adverts are very different; the IBIZA has more features images of young people than the Blackpool. The colour| |used for both image is more effective because it is attractive poster whose ever see is would like to have a closer look what the advertisement for and these| |adverts is targeting many adults willing to go on holiday. The evidence used to compare to be a poster magazine contrast. | Paragraph 6 – Social, historical and cultural features – explicit and implicit (4. 1) Compare and contrast the social, historical and cultural features which are explicit and implicit in the two advertisements. For instance, in the Blackpool advertisement why do you think the advertisers show a prominent image of a postcard? Is this a social, historical or social feature? You must provide evidence. |The imagery of the social life styles these days are totally different from the time of 1990. This present time we are now has different kind of dressing | |compare to the time of 1990, like the young boys and girls at this present time we are now put on tight clothes like jeans, short sleeve wearing of boots, | |different kind of hair styles but some people still like the old hair style of 1960, but the hair styles this time is different compare to the time of 1990 | |when people use to have afro hair styles and the code of dressing now also different. The code has built in rules or signals indicating the message being | |given by a persons clothing and how it is worn. This message may include indications of the persons gender,  income, occupation and  social class, political,| |ethnic and religious affiliation,  attitude  and attitude towards comfort, fashion, traditions, gender expression, marital status, sexual availability and | |sexual orientation, etc. Clothes convey other social messages including the stating or claiming  personal  or  cultural identity, the establishing, maintaining,| |or defying social group  norms, and appreciating comfort and functionality and the technology this time has developed more and experience han the time of | |1990 the both young’s and adults people are now civilise, mature in every areas of their social life styles with now bring effect on cultures and tradition. | Paragraph 7 – Conclusion (1. 1, 1. 2, 2. 1, 2. 2, 3. 1) For your conclusion, you must compare and contrast the two advertisements, evaluating how effective you think the advertising techniques used are with regard to th e audience the advertisers are targeting. I am going to compare adverts of IBIZA and Blackpool for the conclusion of the advertisement. The IBIZA was very effective because it draw the attention of | |young people to take part of the holiday programme it to make the young people to have interest on what they were adverting that why it was design with so | |many effective colour that can create an attraction. The techniques used to advertise the poster was aiming to the young’s people who are planning for a | |holiday. The Blackpool is aiming to the adults men and women and the techniques used for the advert was targeting the adults people planning on holiday. The | |effect of the advert written was clear and clean easy to read and understand the colour use are so bright and the photograph show on the advert is a sign to | |encourage people whose has not have the chance to dance for a period of time, if you love dancing and meeting new people this is your chance to dance. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Miss free essay sample Evaluate United’s response to Dave Carroll’s music video. Did the airline handle the incident well? 3. In general, how should firms prepare for the challenges posed by user-generated content and social media? The â€Å"United breaks guitars† video went viral and has had over 7,000,000 views to date. Dave Carroll came up with his protest songs, he said, thinking what Michael Moore would have done, that is, create an instrument able to assemble the angry ones. A wonderful tool for consumer advocacy is a viral video because as said, chances are youre not the only one who is upset. After Dave Carrolls videos, United Airlines was inundated with additional complaints, so it happened that a traumatic experience for one flyer becomes a public relations disaster for United Airlines. United lately responded to Youtube videos, suffering the consequences of a stock price felt of 10%, costing stockholders about $180 million. When social media are involved the best response is the quickest response. We will write a custom essay sample on Miss or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page United Airlines neglection in reacting caused an out of control media diffusion. United Airlines major error was not to pay attention to the previous incidents of people using social media to voice their frustration. Companies should understand the power of social media for customer interactions and monitor social media sites as part of their social media customer outreach and marketing efforts. A positive reaction of United would have been to use the incident as a positive PR opportunity to show off how they work positively with customers to solve problems. The lesson for any firms is.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Di-n-butyl phthalate Essays

Di-n-butyl phthalate Essays Di-n-butyl phthalate Essay Di-n-butyl phthalate Essay Abstraction Di-n-butyl phthalate ( DBP ) is a omnipresent environmental pollutant, extensively used as a plasticiser in many merchandises including plastics, cosmetics and medical devices. Some surveies have showed that DBP has possible testicular toxicity, nevertheless, the mechanism of action of DBP on male reproduction is non clear. The present survey was designed to further look into the possible male generative toxicity of DBP more wholly. Oxidative emphasis was besides assessed in rat testicles as an implicit in mechanism. Forty SD grownup rats were indiscriminately allotted to four groups, and DBP was administered to each group by unwritten forced feeding at doses of 0 ( control ) , 100, 250 and 500mg/kg/day for 2 back-to-back hebdomads. The consequences indicated that the generative toxicity of DBP is dose-dependent. Body weight and testicular weight was significantly decreased in rats of DBP exposure at dosage of 500mg/kg/day. Sperm count and motility were significantly decreased at dos es of 250 and 500mg/kg/day group. The same two doses significantly inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) , and glutathione ( GSH ) while the degree of malondialdehyde ( MDA ) was significantly increased in testicles of rats. Microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin ( HE ) staining showed that seminiferous tubules wasting and seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed in rats of DBP exposure at doses of 500mg/kg/day. In decision, DBP alters the testicular construction and map, at least partially, by bring oning oxidative emphasis in testicles of grownup rats. Cardinal words: Di-n-butyl phthalate ; Reproductive toxicity ; Testis ; Oxidative emphasis 1 Introduction Recent epidemiological information showed that the human seeds quality has declined during the last 60 old ages, whereas the incidence of male venereal piece of land abnormalcies and sterility has increased [ 1-2 ] . Infertility affects 10-15 % of twosomes, male factors account for about half of all sterility instances. Although modern diagnostic methods detect more and more organic causes of sterility, unluckily, about 50 % of sterility instances are still unexplained for work forces [ 3 ] . The recent diminution in sperm quality observed in work forces has developed over a short period of clip, proposing that it could be the consequence of environmental factors [ 2 ] . Recently, there has been increased consciousness of the possible effects of environmental contaminations on male reproduction [ 4-5 ] . Di-n-butyl phthalate ( DBP ) is a omnipresent environmental pollutant, It is a phthalic acid ester used extensively as a plasticiser in many merchandises including flexible plastics, medical devices and some decorative preparations [ 6,7 ] . DBP have attracted particular attending from the scientific community and the general public due to their high production volume, in million of dozenss yearly [ 8 ] . Human exposure occurs chiefly through contaminated nutrient and H2O, particularly high-fat nutrients, which may be in contact with plastic, adhesives, or other packing stuffs that contain DBP, pharmaceutical preparations besides result in important human exposure, because assorted plasticisers are used to surface medical specialties such as antibiotics, antihistamines and laxatives [ 9 ] . Although there are deficient informations for DBP effects on human reproduction, some surveies in gnawers have reported the influence of DBP on the male generative system [ 10-12 ] . To day of the month, nevertheless, the mechanisms of generative toxicology of DBP are still ill-defined and need to be farther studied. Oxidative emphasis consequences from an instability between the inordinate formation of reactive O species ( ROS ) and limited antioxidant defences. ROS, including vest O, H peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl group, are of import go-betweens of cellular hurt, and play an of import function in oxidative harm. Environmental contaminations have been shown to bring on ROS coevals in both intra- and extracellular infinites of cells or persons taking to cell decease and tissue hurt [ 13,14 ] . Previous surveies from our research lab have besides shown that environmental factors alter pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance in testicle [ 15,16 ] . Therefore, the present survey was designed to further look into the male generative toxicity of DBP, oxidative emphasis was besides assessed in testicles as a possible implicit in mechanism. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Animals and intervention 40 healthy grownup male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-210 g were obtained from Experimental Animal Center of Xian Jiaotong University. Animals were housed in solid-bottomed polycarbonate coops in SPF carnal research lab with a temperature 21-25? and a comparative humidness of 40-60 % . Rats were acclimatized at a 12 H light / 12 H dark rhythm and fed a standard diet and tap H2O ad libitum for a hebdomad before the experiments. Experiments were performed in conformity with the Animal Experimentation Committee Regulation. The rats were divided at random into four groups, each consisting 10 persons. Rats in DBP-exposed groups were given DBP ( Sigma Chemical Co. , St. Louis, MO ) at a dosage of 100, 250, 500mg/kg/day ( 1ml/100g organic structure weight ) severally by unwritten forced feeding for 2 back-to-back hebdomads. Rats in the control group were orally administered maize oil in the same volume for 2 back-to-back hebdomads. 2.2 In-life observations All rats were observed at least twice per twenty-four hours. Changes in the tegument and pelt, mucose membranes, respiration and carnal behaviour were monitored. Body weight was later recorded one time per hebdomad before autopsy. 2.3 Testicular histopathology At the terminal of the exposure, the rats were sacrificed by an overdose of pentobarbital Na ( 50 mg/kg, i.p, Sigma, USA ) , the testicles were instantly removed and weighed. The left testicles of each rat were used for histopathological survey and the right for biochemical check. Left testes was fixed in fresh Bouin s solution for 24 hours and so dehydrated and embedded in paraffin, eventually 4  µm subdivisions were cut and stained with hematoxylin A ; eosin ( HE ) . The tissue subdivisions were observed under a light microscope for the testicles histopathology harmonizing to Bustos-Obregon et Al [ 17 ] . 2.4 Epididymal sperm analysis Epididymiss were dissected out and instantly minced with all right scissors in 5 mL physiological saline at 37? , and so incubated at 37? for 30 min to let sperm cell to go forth the epididymal tubules. One bead of sperm suspension was placed on a slide for light microscope observation of sperm motility at a magnification of -400, a sum of 200 sperm per sample were evaluated. Entire sperm figure was estimated utilizing Neubaeur haemocytometer harmonizing to old methods [ 15 ] . 2.5 Testicular biochemical checks ( Assay of oxidative position and enzymatic antioxidant ) ) Right testicles of each rat was instantly de-capsulated, cleaned and washed in precooling physiological saline several times and homogenized in 0.1mol/L pH 7.4 precooling phosphate buffered saline ( PBS ) , the homogenate was centrifuged at 3000 -g for 15 min and the supernatant was used for biochemical checks. The activities of glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and the content of glutathione ( GSH ) and malondialdehyde ( MDA ) in testicles were detected utilizing commercial Assay Kit ( Jiancheng biotech Int, Nanjing ) . 2.6 Statistical analysis All statistical analyses were carried out utilizing SPSS statistical package version 13.0 ( SPSS, Chicago, USA ) . First, all informations are tested for normal distribution ( Shapiro-Wilks ) and homogeneousness of discrepancies ( Bartlett trial ) , specifying whether the consequences should be analyzed parametrically or non-parametrically. Finally, statistical analysis was performed utilizing one-way ANOVA, all Data were expressed as mean ±SD. P lt ; 0.05 was considered as important. 3 Consequences 3.1 General position of Rats All rats treated with and without DBP survived the 14-day observation period, general position ( skin and fur colour, reactivity ) in rats of 100 and 250mg/kg/day DBP exposure groups showed no obvious difference compared with those in the control group. However, rats in 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure group showed rarefaction of hair and torpor of reaction. 3.2 The organic structure and testicles weight Compared with the control group, organic structure weight and testicles weight were significantly decreased in rats of 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure group ( P lt ; 0.05 ) ( Fig. 1, 2 ) . 3.3 Testicular histopathology Compared with controls ( Fig. 3A ) , the morphology of testicular seminiferous tubules of rats the 100 and 250mg/kg/day groups ( Fig. 3B, 3C ) showed no obvious alterations. However, there were important histopathological alterations in rats of 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure group. The chief pathological alterations included seminiferous tubules atrophy, the seminiferous epithelial cells disintegrated and shed, spermatogenic cells decreased ( Fig.3D ) , and the lm were oligozoospermic ( Fig. 3D ) . 3.4 Epididymal sperm Compared with the controls, the sperm count and the per centum of motile sperm were significantly decreased in rats of 250 and 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure groups ( P lt ; 0.05 ) ( Fig. 4, 5 ) . 3.5 Testicular biochemical analysis The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and GSH in testicular tissue of rats of 250 and 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure groups were significantly lower than those of the controls ( P lt ; 0.05 ) ( Fig. 6-8 ) . Furthermore, MDA degrees in the testicular tissue were found to be significantly higher in the 250 and 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure groups compared with the control group ( Fig. 9 ) . 4 Discussion DBP is a omnipresent environmental contamination, human are invariably exposed to DBP through nutrient, H2O or contact with a assortment merchandises [ 8 ] . Although preventative steps aimed at cut downing DBP contamination have been implemented, exposure to DBP remains one of the most outstanding environmental wellness jobs [ 8,18 ] . In present survey, the dose-dependent male generative toxicity induced by DBP was shown to be associated with decrease in testicular weights, regressive testicular histological morphology every bit good as with lessening in sperm count and sperm motility. Our survey showed that the testicular weight was significantly decreased in rats of 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure group, The weight of testicles is mostly dependent on the mass of the differentiated spermatogenic cells, the ascertained decrease in the weight of testicles are due to the reduced figure of germ cells and extended spermatids in the testicles [ 14 ] , which is consistent with the consequences of testicular histological alterations. DBP caused regressive histological alterations in the seminiferous tubules which supports the consequences of other writers [ 10,19 ] . Seminiferous tubules wasting and spermatogenic cells decreased were structural index of spermatogenesis failure [ 20 ] . Seminiferous epithelial cells sheding were normally due to the harm of sertoli cells and break of intercellular span [ 21 ] . Our survey showed that the sperm count and the per centum of motile sperm were significantly decreased in rats of 250 and 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure groups, nevertheless the testicular weight and morphology showed no obvious alterations in 250mg/kg/day DBP exposed group. These consequences showed that sperm count and motility is more sensitive parametric quantities in rating of hazards from toxic effects on male generative system, which supports the consequences of other writers [ 14, 22 ] Pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance is critical for normal biological operation of the cells and tissues [ 14 ] , the antioxidant system comprises enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, GSH-Px and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH. SOD and GSH-Px are major enzymes that scavenge harmful ROS in male generative variety meats. GSH repairs oxidized and damaged molecules and besides play a function in modulating a assortment of cellular maps. Oxidative emphasis occurs when the oxidative homeostasis is damaged [ 23 ] . Excessive ROS are generated and caused lipid peroxidation, MDA is one of most of import merchandises of lipid peroxidation which interfere protein biogenesis by organizing adducts with DNA, RNA and protein [ 24 ] . Our surveies showed that the obvious lessening of testicular antioxidant system while outstanding increasing of testicular lipid peroxidation merchandise MDA in testicles of 250 and 500mg/kg/day DBP exposure rats. These parametric quantities alterations were consistent with the alterations of sperm count and motility. It is known that human testicles and sperm cells are highly sensitive to ROS-induced harm [ 25 ] . The elevated degrees of ROS consequence in oxidization of cellular constituents with unsaturated fatty acids, the most vulnerable molecules [ 14 ] . Spermatozoa have been considered to be extremely susceptible to the harm induced by ROS because of their high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In add-on, Excessive ROS increase germ cells programmed cell death and suppress the activity of sperm cell [ 23 ] . Similar phenomena frequently are observed after exposure to other chemicals that cause testicular harm [ 14,15,24 ] . It suggests that oxidative emphasis is one of of import mechanisms of testicular harm. In decision, our surveies demonstrate a dose-dependant male generative toxicity of DBP, exposure of the ranked doses of DBP elicit lessening in testicular weight and sperm quality. In add-on, exposure of the ranked doses of DBP generates ROS by diminishing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and increasing lipid peroxidation thereby doing oxidative emphasis in testicles of rats. This concludes that DBP induces testicular toxicity, as least partially, by initiation of oxidative emphasis in testicle.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Querer Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, Examples

Querer Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, Examples The Spanish verb querer is a common verb that means to want, to wish, to love or to like, and its conjugation is highly irregular. Both its stem and endings often depart from the norm in unpredictable ways. This article includes querer conjugations in the present, past, conditional and future indicative, the present and past subjunctive, the imperative, and other verb forms. There are only three verbs that are conjugated in the same way as querer, and all three are derived from it: bienquerer (to like or be fond of), desquerer (to cease wanting or loving) and malquerer (to dislike). None of them are particularly common. Using the Verb Querer The verb querer can be translated to English in several different ways. The most common meaning is to want or to wish, as in El nià ±o quiere muchos regalos para su cumpleaà ±os (The boy wants a lot of presents for his birthday), or Ella quiere que todos los nià ±os sean felices (She wishes for all children to be happy). When used with people (or pets), the verb querer can also mean to love. Although the verb amar means to love, it is often used in more profound or romantic relationships. You can use the verb querer as in Quiero mucho a mi mejor amigo (I really love my best friend) or La nià ±a quiere a sus maestros (The girl loves her teachers). In the last example, querer has a connotation of to appreciate more than to love. Also, notice that when used in this way with people or pets, the personal a is always used before the direct object. Querer Present Indicative In the present indicative tense, the verb querer is stem-changing. This means that the e in the stem of the verb changes to ie when part of a stressed syllable. Yo quiero I want Yo quiero viajar a Espaà ±a. Tà º quieres You want Tà º quieres un carro nuevo. Usted/à ©l/ella quiere You/he/she wants Ella quiere a sus amigos. Nosotros queremos We want Nosotros queremos tener paz en el mundo. Vosotros querà ©is You want Vosotros querà ©is aprender italiano. Ustedes/ellos/ellas quieren You/they want Ellos quieren mucho a sus mascotas. Querer Preterite Indicative In the preterite tense, querer is irregular, since the stem changes to quis-. The preterite is used to talk about completed actions in the past. When using the verb querer in the preterite, it has the meaning of something that someone wanted but did not obtain. For example, Quise ir a la fiesta means I wanted to go to the party but I ended up not being able to go. Yo quise I wanted Yo quiseviajar a Espaà ±a. Tà º quisiste You wanted Tà º quisisteun carro nuevo. Usted/à ©l/ella quiso You/he/she wanted Ella quisoa sus amigos. Nosotros quisimos We wanted Nosotros quisimos tenerpaz en el mundo. Vosotros quisisteis You wanted Vosotros quisisteisaprender italiano. Ustedes/ellos/ellas quisieron You/they wanted Ellos quisieron mucho a sus mascotas. Querer Imperfect Indicative The imperfect tense conjugation of querer is regular. You start with the stem quer- and add the imperfect ending for -er verbs (à ­a, à ­as, à ­a, à ­amos, à ­ais, à ­an). In the imperfect tense the verb querer usually means wanted, but can also be translated as was wanting or used to want. The imperfect is used to talk about ongoing actions in the past. With the verb querer it means that someone wanted something, but we dont know if they obtained it or not. Yo querà ­a I used to want Yo querà ­aviajar a Espaà ±a. Tà º querà ­as You used to want Tà º querà ­as un carro nuevo. Usted/à ©l/ella querà ­a You/he/she used to want Ella querà ­a a sus amigos. Nosotros querà ­amos We used to want Nosotros querà ­amos tener paz en el mundo. Vosotros querà ­ais You used to want Vosotros querà ­ais aprender italiano. Ustedes/ellos/ellas querà ­an You/they used to want Ellos querà ­an a sus mascotas. Querer Future Indicative To conjugate the future tense you start with the infinitive (querer) and add the future tense endings (à ©, s, , emos, is, n). However, the verb querer is irregular because there is an extra r in the stem, so it ends up being querr-. Yo querrà © I will want Yo querrà © viajar a Espaà ±a. Tà º querrs Youwill want Tà º querrs un carro nuevo. Usted/à ©l/ella querr You/he/shewill want Ella querra sus amigos. Nosotros querremos Wewill want Nosotros querremostener paz en el mundo. Vosotros querrà ©is Youwill want Vosotros querrà ©is aprender italiano. Ustedes/ellos/ellas querrn You/theywill want Ellos querrn a sus mascotas. Querer PeriphrasticFuture Indicative The periphrastic future is formed with the present indicative conjugation of the verb ir (to go), the preposition a, and the infinitive querer. Yo voy a querer I am going to want Yo voy a querer viajar a Espaà ±a. Tà º vasa querer You aregoing to want Tà º vasa querer un carro nuevo. Usted/à ©l/ella vaa querer You/he/shegoing to want Ella vaa querer a sus amigos. Nosotros vamosa querer We aregoing to want Nosotros vamos a querer tener paz en el mundo. Vosotros vaisa querer You aregoing to want Vosotros vaisa querer aprender italiano. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vana querer You/they aregoing to want Ellos vana querer mucho a sus mascotas. Querer Present Progressive/Gerund Form The gerund  or present participle for the verb querer is formed regularly, by starting with stem of the verb quer- and the ending the ending -iendo (for -er and -ir verbs). The present participle can be used to form progressive tenses like the present progressive, which usually requires the auxiliary verb estar. However, it is rare to use the verb querer in progressive tenses, since to want already implies an ongoing action. Therefore, it sounds redundant to say est queriendo (is wanting) and it is simpler to say quiere (wants). The form queriendo is more commonly used as an adverb, as in Queriendo ayudar, hicimos un gran esfuerzo (Wanting to help, we made a great effort). Present Progressive ofQuerer est queriendo She is wanting Ella est queriendo a sus amigos. Querer Past Participle The past participle is formed with the stem quer- plus the ending -ido. It can be used to form perfect tenses, such as the present perfect. The present perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle querido. Present Perfect ofQuerer ha querido She has wanted Ella ha querido a sus amigos. Querer Conditional Indicative The conditional tense is usually translated to English as would verb. Similar to the future tense, it is conjugated by starting with the infinitive form. However, just like in the future tense, the verb querer is irregular because it has an extra r, so it uses the stem querr-. Yo querrà ­a I would want Yo querrà ­a viajar a Espaà ±a si no me diera miedo viajar en avià ³n. Tà º querrà ­as Youwould want Tà º querrà ­as un carro nuevo, pero estn muy caros. Usted/à ©l/ella querrà ­a You/he/shewould want Ella querrà ­a a sus amigos si fueran ms amables. Nosotros querrà ­amos Wewould want Nosotros querrà ­amostener paz en el mundo, pero sabemos que es muy difà ­cil. Vosotros querrà ­ais Youwould want Vosotros querrà ­ais aprender italiano, pero preferisteis aprender francà ©s. Ustedes/ellos/ellas querrà ­an You/theywould want Ellos querrà ­an mucho a sus mascotas si se portaran mejor. Querer Present Subjunctive The present subjunctive is used for subjective situations like desires, doubts and recommendations. It is formed starting with the first person singular present indicative conjugation (yo). It is also stem-changing (e to ie) when the e falls on the stressed syllable. Que yo quiera That I want El agente de viajes espera que yo quiera viajar a Espaà ±a. Que tà º quieras That you want El vendedor espera que tà º quieras un carro nuevo. Que usted/à ©l/ella quiera That you/he/she want Mam espera que ella quiera a sus amigos. Que nosotros queramos That we want Los diplomticos esperan que nosotros queramos tener paz en el mundo. Que vosotros queris That you want El maestro espera que vosotros queris aprender italiano. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas quieran That you/they want Pap espera que ellos quieran mucho a sus mascotas. Querer Imperfect Subjunctive There are two options for conjugating the imperfect subjunctive. Option 1 Que yo quisiera That I wanted La agente de viajes esperaba que yo quisiera viajar a Espaà ±a. Que tà º quisieras That you wanted El vendedor esperaba que tà º quisieras un carro nuevo. Que usted/à ©l/ella quisiera That you/he/she wanted Mam esperaba que ella quisiera a sus amigos. Que nosotros quisià ©ramos That we wanted Los diplomticos esperaban que nosotros quisià ©ramos tener paz en el mundo. Que vosotros quisierais That you wanted El maestro esperaba que vosotros quisierais aprender italiano. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas quisieran That you/they wanted Pap esperaba que ellos quisieran mucho a sus mascotas. Option 2 Que yo quisiese That I wanted La agente de viajes esperaba que yo quisiese viajar a Espaà ±a. Que tà º quisieses That you wanted El vendedor esperaba que tà º quisieses un carro nuevo. Que usted/à ©l/ella quisiese That you/he/she wanted Mam esperaba que ella quisiese a sus amigos. Que nosotros quisià ©semos That we wanted Los diplomticos esperaban que nosotros quisià ©semos tener paz en el mundo. Que vosotros quisieseis That you wanted El maestro esperaba que vosotros quisieseis aprender italiano. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas quisiesen That you/they wanted El pap esperaba que ellos quisiesen mucho a sus mascotas. Querer Imperative The imperative mood is used to give orders or commands. It is not common to use commands with the verb querer, because usually you dont tell people to want something. However, it is possible that you would tell someone to love someone else, which is one of the meanings of the verb querer. Therefore, the examples below were changed to show more realistic situations of querer in the imperative. Positive Commands Tà º quiere Love!  ¡Quiere a tus amigos! Usted quiera Love!  ¡Quiera a su madre! Nosotros queramos Let's love!  ¡Queramos a nuestros hermanos! Vosotros quered Love!  ¡Quered a vuestra familia! Ustedes quieran Love!  ¡Quieran a sus padres! Negative Commands Tà º no quieras Don't love!  ¡No quieras a tus amigos! Usted no quiera Don't love!  ¡No quiera a su madre! Nosotros no queramos Let's not love!  ¡No queramos a nuestros hermanos! Vosotros no queris Don't love!  ¡No queris a vuestra familia! Ustedes no quieran Don't love!  ¡No quieran a sus padres!

Friday, February 14, 2020

Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Development - Essay Example 47). Thus development in an organizational context is dependent on some key theoretical aspects like: a) Leadership The main crux of any leadership effort is to motivate people to aspire to achieve a common goal and to extend to them the skills and the attributes that could make them work collectively as a team (Rost 1993, p. 39). A leader always has the ability and the potential to gets things done by others through following the right strategy and attitude. However, such attitude ought to rely predominantly on a feeling of respect for and trust on others and must avoid as far as possible, resorting to fear and submission (Rost 1993, p. 42). Hence, respect and mutual trust are the key elements of leadership. b) Motivation It is very common to come across the reality that varied personnel constituting an organizational team tend to have diverse purposes, goals and aspirations (Mackay 2007, p. 24). Not to say that the eventual success of any project is predominantly dependant on the c ollective commitment of all the team members to the envisaged goal. This is mostly a direct function of their levels of motivation. Motivation in an organizational context is a two pronged process. ... to be bound by a common sense of purpose, thereby extending maximum cooperation to the respective group members, the organizational leadership, the diverse stakeholders associated with the organization and the organizational administration (Lantz 2007, p. 12). Teamwork is always the final outcome of good team building and effective leadership. Team building efforts comprise of varied tasks like defining goals and targets, extending and establishing leadership, management of conflicts, and motivating the respective team members (Lantz 2007). Team building also consists of processes like encouraging the interpersonal behaviour that aids effective communication and negotiating the roles ascribed to respective team members and establishing the procedures that go with them (Lantz 2007). It goes without saying that the team building efforts in an organization are certainly bolstered by the ability of a team leader to solicit the backing and support of the top management. Team building is a lso to a great extent dependant on the ability of a team leader to come out with appropriate reward systems. d) Communication Most of the experts consider communication to be the single most important factor that could make or mar the eventual success of any project (Harris 1993). The success of a project to a great extent relies on the effective communication between team members, between team members and the leadership, and between a team and the diverse stakeholders associated with a project (Harris 1993). A hassle free and open communication is the way to success and achievement. Proper communication is the one potent way to better and improve professional relationships between the varied team members. Hence, a team leader ought to learn about the varied communication aspects of the